Tag Archives: wetlands

Wetlands and Climate Change


Climate change is the rise in average surface temperatures on Earth, mostly due to the burning of fossil fuels.  Climate change is causing intensifying storm activity, rising sea levels and creating more
frequent floods and droughts in the Carolinas and worldwide. Recent,
significant storm events in North and South Carolina include Hurricane Florence (2018), Hurricane Matthew (2016) and Hurricane Floyd (1999).

Aerial view of Hurricane Florence (2018) heading for the Carolinas. Photo: NASA

Increased storm activity is having a huge economic and environmental impact on our coastal and inland communities in the Carolinas.  Hurricane Matthew caused an estimated $4.8 billion in damages. Hurricane Floyd caused between $7 and $9.4 billion, and the damage from Hurricane Florence was estimated to be nearly $17 billion – more than Matthew and Floyd combined

 Wetlands play a critical role to help mitigate increased storm activity caused by climate change by retaining floodwater, stormwater and storm surges.  Because of their critical importance during these storm events, wetland protection and conservation is essential to combating the effects of climate change in the Carolinas.

Problem Statement

Climate change is here.  As defined by NASA, climate change refers to long-term changes in the average weather patterns that have come to define Earth’s local, regional and global climate1. Climate change causes increased temperatures and storm activity, contributes to rising sea levels, elevates storm surges and causes more frequent flooding. The economic impact of recent, intense storm activity in the Carolinas has been devastating over the last 10 years.  In 2018, Hurricane Florence produced a record storm surge of 9 to 13 feet and caused catastrophic flooding inland for days2. More than 50 people died across the region; 42 in North Carolina alone. North Carolina’s Governor Roy Cooper estimated Florence’s damage in North Carolina at $17 billion—an amount more than Hurricane Matthew and the previous historic hurricane, Floyd in 1999, combined2.

Flooding not only causes property damage, but also impacts public health and overall well-being in our communities3. Flooding can destroy a home, leaving it uninhabitable. There are also numerous hidden dangers in flood waters that create a public health risk: live wires, broken glass, and sharp metal as well as bacteria and other pathogens4.


There is general agreement amongst the scientific community that climate change is real. Also referred to as global warming, climate change is causing a rise in average surface temperatures on around the globe1. 2019 was the warmest year on record in North Carolina. In the Carolinas, scientists have observed an increase in annual average temperature by 1.0o F since 1895.  In North Carolina, the last 10 years (2009 – 2018) represented the warmest 10-year period on record5.  In Charleston, South Carolina, 2019 was the fourth-warmest year on record, which ended the warmest decade to date6. In addition to rising temperatures, climate change is intensifying storm activity, rising sea levels and causing more frequent floods and droughts worldwide. The Carolinas have experienced several major hurricanes in the last 5 years, including Hurricane Matthew (2016), Florence (2018) and Dorian (2019).  These hurricanes caused widespread flooding in dozens of coastal communities, resulting in billions of dollars in property damage. Extreme flooding events occurred during hurricanes Matthew (2016) and Florence (2018) in North and South Carolina5.  Florence was a historic storm, breaking 28 flood records across North and South Carolina7.  Some of the flooding records are over 75 years old, including the Northeast Cape Fear River near Chinaquapin, NC (78 years) and the Little Pee Dee River at Galivants Ferry, SC (77 years).    


Wetlands play an absolutely critical role in mitigating the impacts of climate change, by retaining floodwater, stormwater and storm surges.  Wetlands also store, or sequester, excess carbon in the atmosphere through photosynthesis8.  Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is absorbed by wetland plants during photosynthesis and is retained in the plants’ biomass (roots, shoots, tree bark and leaves) and in the soil as soil organic matter.

View of Lily Pond in May of 2015 within the Croatan National Forest in North Carolina. This wetland is well known for its capacity to retain water after storm events, slowly releasing the water back into the environment. Photo: Kristie Gianopulos

When an area floods with water, surrounding wetlands act like a giant sponge; living plants and even the dead plant matter along with porous soils can absorb the extra water. Wetlands also help slow down the movement of floodwater to surrounding areas – which would otherwise impact homes and businesses. In coastal areas, marsh wetlands protect shorelines from erosion by buffering wave action and trapping sediments. They reduce flooding by slowing and absorbing rainwater and protect water quality by filtering runoff.  Coastal marshes can also migrate landward (Figure below). Trapped sediments allow the marshes to rise in elevation, which helps mitigate the effects of sea level rise (SLR).Because of their ability to mitigate sea level rise, absorb rainwater, retain floodwater and store atmospheric carbon dioxide, wetland protection and conservation is essential in the Carolinas.

Landward migration of salt marsh with sea level rise (SRL). (Figure courtesy of DCERP 2 Final Report, 2018.)9

  Wetlands can be protected and conserved in a number of ways:

  • By not developing or impacting wetlands (e.g., filling, ditching),
  • By placing wetlands under protective easement (e.g., conservation easement).
  • If you live on waterfront property, wetlands can be protected by installing a “living shoreline” (see photo below) – a mix of plant roots, sand and stone instead of man-made structures, like retaining walls, to stabilize the soil.
View of a living shoreline along the Carolina coast. Photo: Restoration Systems


Climate change isn’t going away.  Climate change intensifies storm activity, and scientists predict an increase in tropical storm frequencies from 1-10% in coming years10. Wetlands play a critical role to help offset the impacts of climate change by retaining floodwater, stormwater and storm surge.  Wetlands also hold tremendous value as a climate change mitigator through their ability to sequester carbon within the organic content in the soil.

View of a saltwater marsh in Francis Marion National Forest. Photo: Kristie Gianopolus

The impacts of climate change on local communities can be significantly lessened by protecting local wetlands. The can be done by:

  • Avoiding the development or impact of wetlands (e.g., filling, ditching);
  • Avoiding wetlands if planning a home, building, shed or farm field expansion; and
  • By placing wetlands under protective easement (e.g., conservation easement).
  • Wetlands can be protected by installing a “living shoreline” (see photo) to stabilize the soil – a mix of plant roots, sand and stone instead of man-made structures, like retaining walls.

There are a number of existing wetland protection programs in place in the Carolinas, and these programs greatly benefit from volunteer contributions and involvement:


  1. NASA’s Climate Center “Overview: Weather, Global Warming and Climate Change” [Online]. Available: https://climate.nasa.gov/resources/global-warming-vs-climate-change/ [Accessed July 1, 2020].
  2. Economic impact of Florence: https://insideclimatenews.org/news/27122018/hurricane-damage-north-carolina-climate-change-2018-year-review-florence-michael-matthew#:~:text=Hurricane%20Florence%20produced%20a%20record,Carolina%20alone%20at%20%2417%20billion.
  3. Economic impact: https://www.newsobserver.com/news/technology/article215476785.html
  4. Health Impacts of Flooding: https://edmdigest.com/resources/florence-flooding/
  5. Kunkel, K.E., R. Easterling, A. Ballinger, S. Biligin, S.M. Champion, D.R. Corbett, K.D. Dello, J. Dissen, J.M. Lackmann, R.A. Lutteich, Jr., L.B. Perry, W.A. Robinson, L.E. Stevens, B.C. Stewart, and A.J. Terando, 2020: North Carolina Climate Science Report. North Carolina Institute for Climate Studies, 233 pp. https://ncics.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/NC_Climate_Science_Report_FullReport_Final_revised_May2020.pdf
  6. https://abcnews4.com/news/local/noaa-2019-was-the-2nd-hottest-year-on-record
  7. https://www.newsobserver.com/news/local/article222615945.html
  8. Association of State Wetland Managers: “Carbon Sequestration” [Online]. Available: https://www.aswm.org/wetland-science/wetlands-and-climate-change/carbon-sequestration
  9. DCERP (2018). Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program 2 Final Report. Retrieved from https://dcerp.serdp-estcp.org/Portals/0/FinalReports/RC2245_DCERP2_Final_Report.pdf
  10. https://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/global-warming-and-hurricanes/
  11. Michener, W.K., E.R. Blood, K.L. Bildstein, M.M. Brinson and L.R. Gardner. Climate Change, Hurricanes and Tropical Storms, and Rising Seal Level in Coastal Wetlands. 1997. Ecological Applications, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 770-801.
  12. C. Kozak, “Restoration Work – A Test for Carbon Farming,” Coastal Review Online, 01-Aug-2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.coastalreview.org/2019/01/restoration-work-a-test-for-carbon-farming/. [Accessed: 11-Feb-2020].

Written by:

Heather Patti, PWS is a Senior Ecologist and Project Manager at TRC Companies, specializing in wetland and stream delineation, permitting and endangered species assessments for the renewable energy industry.  Heather is a proud mother of 2 boys, Ben and Wyatt, and in her free time enjoys hiking, camping, botanizing and kayaking.  She is a terrible fisherman.

Amphibians: Rising in Fall

by Jeff Beane

To everything there is a season. The lives of most amphibians are particularly seasonally oriented. Amphibian literally means “double life” or “both lives,” referencing the dependence of these animals on both land and water. It’s not precisely true. Some amphibian species are entirely aquatic and some are exclusively terrestrial, defying the very definition of amphibian. But except for the fully terrestrial plethodontid salamanders in the genera Aneides and Plethodon, all amphibians in the Carolinas depend on either wetlands or permanent water for breeding.

Every amphibian species has a different life cycle and survival strategy. Some possess extreme seasonal adaptability, potentially breeding whenever weather conditions are favorable. Others breed at very specific times of year—some only in winter, others only in spring, and still others only in summer. This seasonal partitioning is one of many strategies serving to reduce competition, allowing multiple species to coexist. Fall is often thought of as a slow time or “down time” for many species, and this does include some amphibian species. But for others, fall is the most important time of year.

Marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) - North Carolina's state salamander - breeds only in the Fall. (Photo by Alvin Braswell)

One obligate fall breeder is North Carolina’s official state salamander—the marbled salamander, Ambystoma opacum. Salamanders in the family Ambystomatidae are collectively called “mole salamanders” because the adults are fossorial, spending most of their lives in burrows on land. Most mole salamanders have life cycles like those of our frogs and toads—they lay their eggs in water, the eggs develop into aquatic larvae, and the larvae develop into terrestrial juveniles. All six mole salamander species in the Carolinas (marbled, spotted, mole, tiger, Mabee’s, and frosted flatwoods) are heavily dependent on fish-free, ephemeral wetlands for breeding. While most deposit their eggs in these wetlands, usually in winter or early spring, marbled salamanders switch things up a little, moving into their breeding sites on rainy nights in late summer or early fall. They utilize a variety of ephemeral wetlands, including floodplain pools, borrow pits, and even ditches and logging ruts, but high-quality upland vernal pools provide the best breeding habitat. Males move into the breeding sites first, sometimes as early as late August. The females follow, usually in September or October. Typically, the pools are bone-dry when they arrive. Not only does this fail to disappoint the salamanders—it’s just what they’re hoping for. They will mate beneath surface litter in the dry pools, the male depositing a sperm packet called a spermatophore and the female retrieving it with her cloaca and retaining it internally to fertilize her eggs as they are deposited. She selects a log or other sheltering object in the dry pool basin and deposits her eggs in a cluster underneath. Then comes a waiting game. She remains with the eggs, attending them until fall or winter rains flood the pool, whereupon she abandons them and returns to her terrestrial burrow. The eggs hatch quickly once inundated, and the aquatic larvae begin developing with a head-start over the other species using the pool later that winter or spring.

Empheral pond at Raberdo Bog (Uwharrie National Forest, west-central Montgomery Co., NC) provides habitat for the mole salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum) (Photo by Alvin Braswell)

Marbled salamanders are not the only fall breeders. The rare frosted flatwoods salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum), still persisting in scattered localities in the South Carolina Lowcountry, typically breeds from October to December. This species also deposits its eggs terrestrially—although usually unattended—amid vegetation in the dry basins of ephemeral wetlands. Tiger and Mabee’s salamanders also may breed as early as October or November, or as late as March, depending on weather. They deposit their eggs (gelatinous masses for tigers, single eggs attached individually to leaves for Mabee’s) in water, so the ponds they use (often Carolina bays) must be flooded before they can breed. During droughts, they may miss breeding for a year, or even several consecutive years.

Spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) (Photo by Alvin Braswell)

Several other amphibians that usually breed in winter or spring, can breed opportunistically in fall if conditions are favorable, especially following hurricane rains. These include the southern leopard frog, Carolina gopher frog, pine woods treefrog, eastern spadefoot, eastern newt, and little grass frog. In some (leopard frog, gopher frog, newt), the larvae will live in the pond all winter. But spadefoot tadpoles develop so rapidly that they will transform and leave before freezing weather, even if breeding occurs as late as October. Some plethodontid salamanders, including mud, red, two-lined, dwarf, and Chamberlain’s dwarf, may mate in fall, although their eggs are laid later in the winter. They are therefore often active on rainy autumn nights.

Fall may be a winding-down time for some creatures, but for certain amphibians it is a new beginning. On every day of the year, there is something important happening in our wetlands!

About the Author

Jeff Beane is the Herpetology Collections Manager at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences in Raleigh, NC.  His research focuses on gathering basic information on the natural history, geographic distribution, and conservation status of all reptile and amphibian species in North Carolina.   More Info.

WRRI Annual Conference: Wetland Session

Carolina Wetlands Association and NC WRRI will host a Virtual Annual Conference session on wetlands research in North Carolina. The free webinar will offer updates on ongoing studies, as well as news on how wetlands are gaining further protections so they can continue to provide valuable ecosystems services.

  • Michael Burchell, NC State University, Removing detritus to rehabilitate older constructed wetlands used in wastewater treatment
  • Melinda Martinez, NC State University, Greenhouse gas emissions from standing dead trees in coastal forested wetlands
  • Brock Kamrath, NC State University, Preliminary assessment of nitrogen treatment in a tertiary constructed wetland following detritus removal

Wetlands in the Winter: What’s Happening?

Winter and early spring is an important time for wetlands across North and South Carolina. First, wetlands are easier to find in the winter with high rainfall and no vegetation growth allowing water to sit at the surface.  This standing water provides needed habitat for migrating birds and breeding amphibians. Also, lack of leaves and pesky mosquitoes make winter the perfect time to explore the different types of wetlands across the landscape.

Water Level (a.k.a. Wetland Hydrology)

Wetlands are defined by the amount, duration, and occurrence of standing water or saturated soil (referred to as wetland hydrology). Non-tidal wetlands like headwater wetlands, riverine swamps and pocosins fill with water in the winter and early spring until plants and trees start to grow and pump the water out to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration. If you explore a wetland in the winter, you may need to wear rubble boots to keep your feet dry.

Hydroperiod for several wetland types show surface water in the winter and early spring. (Source: National Research Council. 1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/4766. )

Import Habitat for Migratory Birds

Wetlands across North and South Carolina provide refuge in the winter for migratory birds like snow geese and tundra swans that fly south to avoid harsh winters in the Northern US and Canada.  The loss of wetlands across the Southeast US has forced some species to adapt by feeding in fallow agriculture fields. Luckily, many state and federal lands across the Coastal Plain of the Carolinas provide vital habitat for these birds and create opportunities for us to catch a glimpse of these majestic animals.

Tundra swans at Lake Mattamuskeet (Photo by Alvin Braswell).

Where can you find tundra swans?

Breeding Grounds for Amphibians

Wetlands are also critical habitat for many reptiles and amphibians because they depend on water for part of their life. Most amphibians lay eggs under water or on moist land. Once the eggs hatch, the baby amphibians must live in water until they form lungs and leave the water as adults. Eggs of some species are laid in the fall and survive in a gel-like substance until wetlands fill with water.  Even as adults, wetlands are an important source of food for amphibians. Step carefully and keep your eyes looking down for signs of salamanders and other amphibians. To learn more about these creatures, join us at the NC Museum of Natural Science’s Reptile and Amphibian Day on March 14.  

Southern Leopard Frog (Rana sphenocephala) egg mass. (Photo by Alvin Braswell.)

Go Explore a Wetland!

Wetlands in the winter are working just as hard as they are the rest of the year and provide opportunities to see species that you can’t see other times of the year.  Here are some resources to help you find a wetland near you : 

Share pictures of your favorite wetland with us on Facebook!

Article written by Kim Matthews (kim.matthews@carolinawetlands.org).

Wetlands Matter: Networking and Information Sharing Event

Wednesday, November 28, 2018 from 5:30 PM – 7:30 PM


Come learn about the Carolina Wetlands Association and the work the organization is doing to advance the understanding, protection and enjoyment of wetlands throughout North and South Carolina.  Our 2019 calendars featuring our Wetland Treasures, magnets, and t-shirts will be available during the event.

5:30    Networking Time

6:00    Guest Speaker: Derb Carter, Southern Environmental Law Center 
Mr. Carter will discuss the status of proposed changes the Waters of the U.S. rule and what that means for wetland protection and restoration.

6:30     Overview of the Carolina Wetlands Assocation
Learn about our efforts to get a Ramsar wetland designation in North Carolina, the Wetland Treasures of the Carolinas Program, and our effort to issue a State of the Wetlands report.

7:00    More Networking Time

7:30    Meeting Ends

Food and drinks will be provided!  Please register so we know you are coming.



Written by Dr. Carrie DeJaco

Prior to European colonization of North America, beaver (Castor canadensis) were abundant throughout most of the continent.  Estimates of pre-colonization beaver populations are between 60 million and 200 million individuals, with at least 20 million beaver-built dams.   By the year 1900, beaver had been extirpated from the eastern half of North America and the species was hanging on by small remnant populations in the west.

Reintroductions of beaver had begun in the southeastern U.S. by the 1940s.  With few predators and laws regulating hunting, beaver populations in North American have rebounded. By 1983, beaver were present in 80 of 100 counties in North Carolina but were still largely absent from the Broad, French Broad, Catawba, and Pasquotank river basins—mainly the Charlotte area and the region directly to the west and north of it.

The majority of studies on beaver in North America have been conducted in the northern states and Canada.  Larger scale effects found by these studies may be applicable here in the south, but many of the species-specific observations are irrelevant due to the difference in plant species between the northern and southern latitudes.  This review of the literature on the impacts of beaver includes the handful of studies conducted in the southeastern U.S.; larger scale patterns observed at northern latitudes will also be discussed, but species-level observations from northern studies will only be included if they are relevant to the southeastern U.S..

Click here to read the entire article.

Beaver dam, Franklin Co, ALB photo
Beaver Dam (Franklin County, NC) Photo by Alvin Braswell

Photo by Alvin Braswell

Beaver Lodge (Franklin County, NC) Photo by Alvin Braswell